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《The Austrian School- Market Order and Entrepreneurial Creativity》读书笔记

文章作者:考试频道 上传时间:2019-11-03

  很多考生感觉自己付出很多,但最后却没能成功。其实,他们的失败只因为没有早动手,导致最后很多考点都来不及学习。下面我们就一起探讨早动手的切入点及其基本方法。

作者:Jesús Huerta de Soto
来源:下载的PDF电子版

  早动手的切入点

Jesús Huerta de Soto Ballester (Madrid, 1956) is a Spanish economist of the Austrian School. He is a professor in the Department of Applied Economics at King Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain and a Senior Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Huerta de Soto received a bachelor's degree in economics in 1978 and a PhD in economics in 1992, from Complutense University. His MBA in actuarial science is from Stanford University, 1985. In 2000 he became a full professor of Political Economy at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid.
Huerta de Soto was Editor of seven volumes of the Spanish language version of the University of Chicago Press's The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. In that capacity, he was responsible for bibliographies, footnotes, introductions, and hiring translators. He is a member of the editorial board of New Perspectives on Political Economy and on the advisory editorial board of the Journal of Markets and Morality. Huerta de Soto is a Senior Fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute and is on the editorial board of its Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. He was formerly a Trustee of the Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA) in social sciences and was a vice-president and director of the Mont Pelerin Society from 2000 to 2004.

  我们给你的建议是:从历年真题切入。很多考生不明白,一模一样的原题不会出,为什么历年真题那么重要?那是因为虽然原题不会再现,但是真理里包含的考点的重复率却是非常高的。通过对历年真题的分析和统计,可以说,超过90%的考点都是在以前的真题中出现过的,所以早动手,从历年真题切入。

巴别塔经哲读书会3月份的要求阅读书目,本书形如奥地利经济学派的简介手册,让读者对学派有一个全面的了解,书中重点和新古典经济学派、社会主义进行了系统的差异性分析,列举了学派发展的历史阶段和关键人物,读的英文版,大量的专业性词汇也是边读边背。

  早动手的具体方法

个人感觉奥地利学派和新古典经济学,犹如海洋法系和大陆法系的差别,但是这样的差别虽然只是表面上的看似较小,实质上确非常的巨大。基于这样差别的本源,是否有必要引出一套企业管理的理论,以及怎么样的一套理论,都是值得慢慢思考的问题,现在谈的比较多的阿米巴经营、互联网公司的扁平化管理架构、智力型服务公司的合伙人制等等,都是这个方向的探索。

  认真统计历年考研[微博]英语的真题后,会发现,真题中反复考核的重点包括以下三类词汇:1.实义动词;2.抽象名词;3.形容词与副词。所以,有针对性地学习历年真题中这三类词汇能对备考效率和考试分数直接产生巨大的帮助。让我们先拿真题做个比较。

time preference 是奥地利学派提出来的,非常有意思的概念,企业管理有时候就是协调团队的 time preference,让人的相对随机行为转变为统一协调的行为,从而产生更明显的波峰和波谷,完成个人所难以达到的目标,管理者需要具备调整相关人员 time preference 的能力。

  1.bewildering令人眼花缭乱的

在社会结构中,企业家是负责盈利的(以盈利为目标导向),消费者是负责购买的(以购买为目标导向),企业家和消费者在进行多伦博弈之后,逐渐产生了一种共赢方案,一个独立的第三方暴力垄断机构:政府。从企业家和消费者对立的角度而言,其实可以产生非常多的政治制度解决方案,比如企业家投票组成的参院和消费者投票产生的众院等等,在非联邦制下面是否可以考虑也是蛮有意思的脑洞。

  2.cognitive认知的

上次参加鲁克阿兰德读书会活动的时候提到的一个问题,关于垄断和创新之间是否存在矛盾性,可以进一步延展到奥地利学派设想的经济环境下讨论:自由市场环境下(不存在任何机构性强迫),企业的垄断行为是否会减少创新行为的发生?这样的环境下专利和垄断的关系是怎么样的?企业家精神和创新的关系之间是否有必然的关联?

  3.constrained受限的,有限的

摘录:

  4.dictate支配

图片 1

  5.dimension维度,规模

图片 2

  6.entail包括

图片 3

  7.enterprise事业

Austrians are particularly critical of the narrow concept of economics which originated with Robbins and his well-known definition of the subject. In his own words, “economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses” (Robbins 1932, 16). Robbins’s conception implicitly presupposes a given knowledge of ends and means and reduces the economic problem to a technical problem of mere allocation, maximization or optimization, subject to certain restrictions which are also assumed known. In other words, Robbins’s concept of economics reflects the essence of the neoclassical paradigm and can be considered completely foreign to the methodology of the  Austrian school as it is understood today. Indeed, Robbins portrays man as an automaton, a simple caricature of a human being, who may only react passively to events. In contrast with this view, Mises, Kirzner and the rest of the  Austrian school maintain that man does not so much allocate given means to given ends, as constantly seek new ends and means, while learning from the past and using his imagination to discover and create the future (via action).  Thus, for  Austrians, economics forms part of a much broader and more general science, a general theory of human action (and not of human decision or choice).  According to Hayek, if for this general science of human action “a name is needed, the term  praxeological sciences now clearly defined and extensively used by Ludwig von Mises, would appear to be most appropriate” (Hayek 1952a, 209).

  8.eradicate消除

Economics is not about things and tangible material objects; it is about men, their meanings and actions. Goods, commodities, and wealth and all the other notions of conduct are not elements of nature; they are elements of human meaning and conduct. He who wants to deal with them must not look at the external world; he must search for them in the meaning of acting men. (Mises 1996, 92)

  9.initiate开始,发动

For the above reasons, members of the  Austrian school find that many of the theories and conclusions that neoclassicals form in their analysis of consumption and production make no sense in terms of economics. One example is the “law of equality of price-weighted marginal utilities”, which rests on very shaky theoretical foundations. In fact this law presupposes that the actor is able to simultaneously assess the utility of all goods at their disposal, and it overlooks the fact that every action is sequential and creative, and that goods are not assessed at the same time by equalizing their supposed marginal utilities, but rather one after the other, within the context of different stages and actions, for each of which the corresponding marginal utility may be not only different but incomparable (Mayer 1994, 81–3)

  10.prerequisite先决条件

The great merit of the  Austrians is to have demonstrated that it is perfectly possible to develop the entire corpus of economic theory in a logical manner, while introducing the concepts of time and creativity  (praxeology); that is, without any need of functions nor assumptions of constancy which do not fit in with the creative nature of human beings, who are the only true protagonists of social processes, the object of research in economics.

  11.stem阻止

et us bear in mind that it fully agrees with the original etymological meaning of the word “enterprise” (empresa in Spanish). Indeed both the Spanish word  empresa and the French and English word  entrepreneur derive etymologically from the Latin verb  in prehendo-endi-ensum, which means “to discover, to see, to perceive, to realize, to capture”; and the Latin term  in prehensa clearly implies action and means “to take, to seize”. In short,  empresa is synonymous with action

  12.unfold打开,阐明

We  could also cite, following Polanyi, the example of a person who is learning to ride a bicycle and attempts to maintain their balance by moving the handlebars to the side toward which they begin to fall, creating in this way a centrifugal force which tends to keep the bicycle upright; yet almost no cyclist is aware of or familiar with the physical principles behind this ability. On the contrary, what the cyclist actually uses is a “sense of balance”, which in some way informs them how to behave at each moment to keep from falling. Polanyi goes so far as to assert that tacit knowledge is in fact the dominant principle of all knowledge (Polanyi 1959, 24–5). Even the most highly formalized and scientific knowledge invariably follows from an intuition or an act of creation, which are simply manifestations of tacit knowledge. Moreover the new knowledge we can acquire through formulas, books, charts, maps and so on is important mainly because it helps us to reorganize our entire framework of practical, entrepreneurial information from different and increasingly rich and valuable perspectives, which in turn opens up new possibilities for the exercise of creative intuition.  Therefore the impossibility of articulating practical knowledge manifests itself not only “statically”, in the sense that any apparently articulated statement contains information only insofar as it is interpreted through a combination of prior, inarticulable beliefs and knowledge, but also “dynamically”, since the mental process used in any attempt at formalized articulation is itself essentially tacit, inarticulable knowledge.

  如果孤立的去记这些单词,会发现根本记不住,转眼就忘了。那么不妨换一种方式来学习词汇,叫作“读透真题记搭配”。还是拿真题中的词举例:

Another type of knowledge that cannot be articulated and that plays an essential role in the functioning of society is composed of the set of habits, traditions, institutions, and juridical and moral rules that comprise the law that make society possible, and that human beings learn to follow, though we cannot articulate in detail nor theorize about the precise functions that these rules and institutions perform in the various situations and social processes in which they are involved.

  1.各种令人眼花缭乱的食物=the bewildering variety of foods,其中variety表示“种类,多样性”。

The exercise of entrepreneurship does not require any means.  That is to say, entrepreneurship does not entail any costs and is therefore fundamentally creative.  This creative aspect of entrepreneurship is embodied in its production of a type of profit which, in a sense, arises out of nothing, and which we shall therefore refer to as pure entrepreneurial profit.  To  derive entrepreneurial profit one needs no prior means, but only to exercise entrepreneurship well. It is particularly important to emphasize that any act of entrepreneurship brings about three extraordinarily significant effects. First, entrepreneurship creates new information. Second, this information is transmitted throughout the market.  Third, the entrepreneurial act teaches each of the economic agents involved to tune their behavior to the needs of the others.  These consequences of entrepreneurship, as the authors of the  Austrian school have analytically formulated them, are so important that they are worth studying closely one by one.

  2.从认知的角度理解=in cognitive terms,其中in terms表示“从……角度理解”。

Each entrepreneurial act entails the  ex nihilo creation of new information or knowledge.  This creation takes place in the mind of the person who initially exercises entrepreneurship. Indeed when a person we shall call “C” realizes that a profit opportunity exists, new information is created in his mind. Furthermore once “C” takes action and contacts, for instance, “A” and “B”, and buys cheaply from “B” a resource that “B” has too much of and then sells it at a higher price to “A”, who needs it urgently, new information is also created in the minds of “A” and “B”. “A” realizes that the resource she lacked and needed so desperately to accomplish her end is available elsewhere in the market in greater quantities than she had thought, and that therefore she can now readily undertake the action she had not initiated before due to the absence of this resource. For his part, “B” realizes that the resource he so abundantly possesses yet did not value is keenly desired by other people, and that therefore he should save and protect it, since he can sell it at a good price.

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